Met us at the NDNA Event Series in the North

Met us at the NDNA Event Series in the North

We will be taking to the road in March and April to deliver our top ten tips for late talkers at the National Day Nurseries Association event series. If your nursery is a member of NDNA and you live north of the Watford Gap – come and see us!

We will also be giving a sneak review of our new programme SparkleVR.

  • 5 March, East Midlands, Leicester, Leicester Racecourse – book now
  • 6 March, West Midlands, Wolverhampton, Molineux Stadium – book now
  • 12 March, North West, Bolton, Bolton Whites Hotel – book now
  • 13 March, Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, Holiday Inn Leeds Garforth – book now
  • 4 April, North East, Newcastle, St James’ Park – book now
Ask an early years teacher – speech and language in their eyes

Ask an early years teacher – speech and language in their eyes

This week we interview Eleanor, a nursery manager with over 20 years of experience working in nurseries and pre-schools.  I was lucky enough to spend half an hour with her, hearing all about her experiences working with pre-school children, and learning some fresh ideas to support communication development along the way.  Who wouldn’t love a bedtime stories session?!

What is your job?

I am a nursery manager, working with children aged 2-4 years old.  I’ve been managing this nursery for the last year and a half.  Working with this age group is wonderful because they are so enthusiastic, and they learn so fast.  Every day I watch the children learning something new.


What does speech, language and communication mean to you as an early years teacher? 

It is a really major part of the work we do, we are encouraging the children to communicate throughout their time with us.  For some children that’s not yet verbally, so we use gesture lots, and we use Makaton (, or find out more about Makaton and sign language in our article). As children are learning to use spoken language we spend a lot of time helping them to extend their vocabulary, and working to improve their grammatical structures.  We hope to give them the skills so that they can use language to express their needs rather than some of the other methods that two year olds frequently use!


How do Speech and Language therapists help children in early years settings? 

There are two main ways we work together.  Sometimes we will refer children to Speech and Language Therapy, and the therapist will either see the child individually, or more usually in a group, at a clinic or health centre.  We often get helpful feedback and suggestions of how we can continue the work in the nursery which we love.  Occasionally the therapist will come and work in the nursery if it’s not possible for the parent to take the child to sessions elsewhere.

I have also been part of projects where Speech and Language Therapists have worked in nurseries, producing materials jointly and encouraging our staff to watch their teaching sessions so that our team can replicate the techniques.


What is the best piece of advice a Speech and Language Therapist has ever given you?

One of the most recent pieces of advice that has challenged my thinking was to only speak to a child if they are looking at you.  I think it’s true, children can zone out if there is a steady voice droning on! I do think it is working for the children I’ve tried it with so far.  For it to be very effective, I think the parents would have to be using the same strategy.

Another piece of advice that a Speech and Language Therapist gave me previously was to talk about what the child is doing or playing with.  I think that works for many children!


What advice as an early years teacher do you pass on to parents who are worried about their child’s communication skills?

If a parent came to me worried about their child’s communication, I would give them some honest information about whether or not their worries were well-founded, based on what we know about other children of a similar age.  We would offer to do an assessment within the nursery, and to refer the child on if they needed it.  I would also encourage the parent to speak with their child, sing songs with their child, and have fun with language.


What advice do you pass on to your staff to help children communicate at nursery/pre-school?

To ensure there is a lot of language, a language rich environment, we encourage everybody to extend their sentences so that if a child is giving you one word you’re putting that into a short simple sentence, modelling it.  We encourage the staff to ask open ended questions so that the child can’t just say “yes” or “no” and so they’re using their language to develop the child’s thinking skills at the same time.  We advise the staff to get down to the level of the child so that you’ve got eye contact when you’re talking, and to gauge the simplicity or complexity of their sentences to the ability of the child.


Give me one quick thing parents can do tonight to help their child communicate?


Read them a bed time story.  You don’t just have to read the words!  Talking about the book, looking at the pictures, is really valuable.  At this age the children are only just starting to recognise a few letters or words so thinking about the story is the most valuable thing.  Have storytime in a nice cosy place so it’s a really positive experience for the child.


We did a bedtime stories session in nursery this year.  The children came back at 5pm in their pyjamas with their teddies and a pillow, and listened to stories told by our staff.  One of the Mums told a story too.  The children acted out one of the stories, then afterwards we gave them milk and a biscuit, and they went home to bed.  The reaction from the parents was astonishing, they all loved it!  One parent said that before this, they had no idea why people read bedtime stories, “I’m going to have to do this at home”.  Another parent said “I feel really sleepy now”!


What communication skills do you expect from a 2 year old just starting nursery?

It’s a really wide range – all of our children have some communication skills when they start nursery, even if they are just leading us by the hand when they want something, pointing, or using single words.  Whereas some children can speak in full sentences already.  It is a really wide range, and that’s normal.


What communication skills do you want your 4 years olds to have when they leave nursery?

We’d want them to be able to express their feelings, to ask for things, to be able to ask questions about what they are learning and about the world they are in.  To be able to give their opinions, but to be able to listen as well and to respond to their friends.  I think speech and language skills are the most valuable gift we could give the children in our nursery.  Particularly for disadvantaged children, it’s the best way for them to catch up with their peers.


What’s your favourite toy, and why?

The train track, we use the train track in a couple of ways.  Sometimes we have it set up ready for the children to use, then we’re focusing on the movement of the trains, and using words like ‘over’ and ‘under’.  Usually children would help to construct the railway as well, developing spatial skills and the language of shape.  It certainly seems to be a favourite toy for lots of the children too.

Written by Alys Mathers, Speech and Language Therapist

Related articles

Early Years language booster programme SPARKLE

The importance of play and at what age?

Will sign language slow down my child’s speech?



Can toys supercharge my child’s language skills?

Can toys supercharge my child’s language skills?

Even as adults, toy stores are alluring. Maybe the appeal comes from the flashing lights, the beaming colours and high stacked shelves. Often we are drawn in by the manufacture’s promises and guarantees to help our children develop in EVERY possible way.

There are the teethers that promise to promote language development*, the baby iPad that will teach your crawler to code and the toy pianos that promise to take you from waddler to Wolfgang.

Whether it’s the toy kitchen that says it will increase your child’s social communication through promoting role play, or the shape sorter that gives hopes of expanding your child’s vocabulary, a toy store, any toy store, comes with a million promises. Some more far-fetched than others.

In the UK, the toy industry is worth 3.4 billion. Toy manufactures know that we want the best for our children and they are cashing in on it!


But what does the research on toys say? And is there a connection between marketing and your child’s development?

Toys are fun, but toys are expensive. Do we really need the latest expensive gadgets and gizmos to give our children the very best start?

There is not much evidence to say that we do!

Child psychologist Alison Gopnik is adamant that relying on toys and iPads to give your child a developmental edge ‘fundamentally misunderstands what is happening in development’ and even if products did exist that fulfilled all the promises they made, ‘we would have defeated the whole point of childhood’

Gopnik goes on to assert that many of the toys that we see today are marketed using questionable claims rather than solid science. This is not to say that toys are not useful and that they don’t provide any value. But being wary of their claims and knowing that there are other things that are just as good, perhaps even better for your child’s development, might well be the place to start.


Drop the flashy and save some cashy! Lets get traditional with toys

It can be tempting to buy the noisiest, flashiest, talking toy on the market, but if we are going to buy a toy, what kind of toy is the best?

A 2016 study found that compared with electronic toys, traditional toys e.g. building blocks, puzzles, stacking games and tea sets, yielded higher language interactions. With the traditional toys, parents used more words and there were more conversational turns, more often!

More conversational turns are linked to better language gains (see our article one good turn deserves another). A recent study (2018) from MIT also points the importance of taking time to use your traditional toys. It found that children’s “language centres” in the brain were stronger in relation to the length of conversational turns that parents took. The children also did better on language tests.

Traditional toys therefore provide a platform on which to stage the back and forth conversations, but that communicative edge and language boost, can come from just you and the things you have lying about.


That is right! Traditional toys might be better than electronic ones, but YOU are the best!

Playing is one serious job and it is the first way that we interact with the world.  (see article on the value of play)

Playing with your child, games like peek a boo, pointing to body parts and naming them, talking about what you are doing around the house and making it in to a fun game, are excellent ways to provide the language for your child to soak up.

Using everyday objects, pots pans, spoons and spatulas! Your tiny tot can have lots of fun banging, role playing, and listening to language, not through a battery operated talking machine but through listening to your voice and the everyday language that they will then go on to understand and use.

The adage is true, children are happiest with a cardboard box. Get ‘stacking’, ‘cutting’, ‘tearing’, ‘colouring’, ‘building’, ‘knocking’ and ‘hiding!’ Playing with such objects helps children (and you) to get creative, use their imaginations, motor skills and learn lots of words!

This is not to say that you shouldn’t buy toys! But know, you are your child’s first and best one. Nothing out there on the shelves of a toy store can replace what you can teach your child through playing with them. So, when you do go to buy that expensive, shiny, noisy toy, choose one that you like! As when your child eventually favours the cardboard box, you will have something to enjoy too! 😉

To find out more about how YOU can boost your child’s language – take a look at our SPARKLE programme

Written by Carolyn Fox, Children’s Speech and Language Therapist



Hurray for Play! From 0-3 years and how it aids language development

Hurray for Play! From 0-3 years and how it aids language development

Hurray for play!

Play has been likened to a fertiliser that nourishes the brain ‘with the behavioural equivalent of miracle Gro’ (John Medina 2008).  Play facilitates learning, encourages creativity and imagination, supports and develops our memory, language, social skills, problem solving ability and much more!

Play is the ‘work of childhood’ (Fred Rogers). As children learn about their world through play, understanding how it develops and how we can support it, is crucial.  Entering a child’s world, requires that we meet them at their developmental stage of play. By doing this we will have a good chance of encouraging them to listen and watch, explore and imitate.

State of play

You are being watched! All the time. As your child’s most influential teacher, they will be watching and learning from you continuously. When we play with children, they watch and learn, learn learn!  We play from the moment we are born, and we continue to play in to adulthood. The way we play throughout these stages is however very different and children will pass through distinct play stages from infancy to preschool age.

Let’s take a look at this journey.

Exploratory play. From birth.

From the very first stages of life, children learn about the world using their senses. Did you know that the lips are one of the most sensitive areas of the body? The lips have many receptor cells that send information to the brain. It is no wonder then that children who are just starting to learn about their world, will play by putting objects to their mouths and in their mouths. Exploring objects this way helps children learn about their features and uses. Each time they explore, they will learn something new and keep adding to this information store for later use. It will eventually help them name items using language.

Encouraging play at this stage

Having everyday objects around as well as toys is a useful way to encourage this learning.  Slowly children will learn about how to use objects appropriately. Try giving your child a spare cup, spoon or toothbrush to play with when you are carrying out real activities using these objects.

This is also the stage where your child will be looking at you to exchange smiles with you and play with sounds. As your child learns that their actions receive a reaction from you they will be encouraged to play more.

Exploratory play doesn’t stop here. It will continue throughout the preschool years as your child is introduced to new objects and new functions, although rather than putting things in their mouths, they will be more likely to discover things with their hands!

Play at 9 months

Children will start to use the information they learned from exploring objects and will begin to show you that they know how to use them! Your clever little cookie may pretend to brush their hair with a hair brush or put a toothbrush to their teeth.

Encouraging play at this stage

Continuing to demonstrate the uses of everyday objects will support your child during this stage. Try making a ‘treasure chest’ filled with useful things. What can they find? Take your time to explore what’s inside.

This stage of play provides some good opportunities to develop language as your child may start to act out events. Using repetitive phrases such as ‘brush dolly’s hair’ or ‘give teddy the cup’ will expose your child to the same language over and over as they play.

Play at 18 months

Your child’s play is really developing and evolving now. They will start to understand that one object can represent another object e.g. a miniature spoon represents a real spoon.  They have been busy bees and all that important playing has helped them reach this significant point. Understanding that one thing can represent another thing is key for learning language, as we use words to represent objects. Your child is beginning to master something complex!

If you have ever wondered why a speech and language therapist looks at how your child plays with objects and toys, this is why! Play can tell us a lot about where your child is on their language journey. Often, if there is a delay in play, there is a delay in language. Supporting and moving on your child’s ability to play therefore helps build the foundations required for language.

Encouraging play at this stage

You can help your child to learn that one object represents another by:

  • Playing with real objects and then introducing a miniature version (from a doll house set). You can model what you do with these objects e.g. brush teeth, drink from a cup
  • Play with teddies and dolls using these objects e.g. feed dolly
  • Play matching games. Have a bag of big and small matching objects. Take them out one by one and try and match them.
  • You can also try this with a picture of the object and the real object. Use a feely bag. What can you feel? Does it match the picture? You can use real photos of things that your child uses or generic pictures.
2.5 years Acting out!

Through play, your child will now likely be showing you how they understand the world around them. They will be using their toys, teddies and dolls to act out sequences that they have grasped from watching, playing and doing e.g. giving teddy his milk and putting him to bed. Acting out these sequences is crucial for later when your child will tell you stories.

Encouraging play at this stage

You can help your child at this stage but acting out the sequences with them. Use familiar toys and clear language e.g. ‘Dolly is eating breakfast, now she is getting dressed’.

You can help your child to structure these ideas but using words like ‘first, second, third’ or ‘Now and next’. Make up sequences containing two steps and see if your child can copy you or do their own.

3 years

Your child has come a long way since the stage of exploration and mouthing objects! They can now use their imaginations and act out short sequences and pretend to be different people e.g. doctor, nurse, fireman. This sort of play will further help them expand on their world knowledge and support their understanding of other people’s emotional states.

Encouraging play at this stage

Encourage this sort of play by using fancy dress. Pretend to be different people and create scenarios where your child may have to think about how someone feels e.g. taking on the role of a doctor to help a patient who is unwell or a vet who is helping a scared animal.

Your child’s play skills will continue to develop and evolve now as they mature to school age and onwards.

Learn to play, play to learn!

Playing allows children to explore and learn about their world, it powers the imagination and boosts their creativity. As your child’s best teacher and first playmate you have an amazing role in spurring on all these skills.  Each stage of play is dependent on the stage before and in each stage, they are learning something crucial that will help them navigate their world.

We learn best when we are having fun, so it makes perfect sense that learning is so rapid in these early years!

Written by Carolyn Fox, Children’s Speech and Language Therapist

Related articles:

New Sparkle programme for 1-3 year olds – language booster

How to use rhyme and songs for language – tips from a therapist

Laurel and Yanny – what it reveals about the listening process for children



What on earth is tongue tie? What you need to know.

What on earth is tongue tie? What you need to know.

Let’s talk about tongues!

You may have heard of tongue tie before, formally known as ankyloglossia.  With around 4-11 percent of new babies being affected by tongue tie (NHS 2017), many parents will have had some experience of it or know someone who has.

What is tongue tie?

Tongue tie occurs when the strip of skin that connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth (frenulum) is too short. There are no known causes for tongue tie. Normally newborn babies will be checked for this upon entering the world. If you lift the tip of your tongue up to the roof of your mouth you will be able see this strip of skin underneath.  Now, if this strip of skin was a little bit shorter, it would impact upon the movement of your tongue.  For babies with tongue tie, they may not be able to stick their tongue out passed their lower lip or move it from side to side or up and down.

Why are we talking about tongue tie?

We use our tongues to speak, suck, chew, swallow, eat, drink and clear our mouths of food.

As Speech and Language Therapists are trained to recognise any abnormalities within the mouth, we are equipped to identify tongue tie.  Having up to date and evidenced based information on tongue tie can help to allay concerns and dispel many myths. As tongue tie is quite common, you may find there is a lot of easily accessible information. When searching the internet for information, always check that the guidance is coming from a reliable source.  Some advice may come from friends and family. Keep in mind that tongue tie will affect people differently.  Information will also come from your health visitor, midwife or doctor. It is important to remember that whilst tongue tie is very common, the consequences for the individual are not generic and no two experiences will be the same.

So, what do I need to know about tongue tie?


Tongue tie causes restricted movement of the tongue and this may make latching on and feeding troublesome for some young babies (NCT)- Some babies with tongue tie will have no problem with feeding at all. If you think that your baby has tongue tie but are not experiencing any difficulties with feeding, you do not need to take any action. Sometimes tongue tie can be harder to spot, especially if it is posterior (at the back of the mouth), it may therefore go undetected. if you are concerned your child may have tongue tie and it is causing feeding challenges, contact your health visitor or midwife for guidance.

For some children with tongue tie, eating may be a messy business. When we eat, our tongues work hard to collect and push the food from around our gums, teeth and lips to the back of the mouth, so we can swallow it. For some, the restricted motion of the tongue may make this mouth clearing troublesome and parents may find they are having to assist e.g. wiping around the child’s lips after eating a yoghurt.

As a result, food may stay in the mouth and in between the teeth for long periods of time and could impact upon dental health and oral hygiene (Caroline Bowen 2015)



As well as potentially causing feeding issues, some professionals believe that tongue tie can cause difficulties with producing speech sounds.  This is widely debated, and the evidence concludes that there is no direct link between tongue tie and speech challenges.

“There is virtually no evidence in the literature to establish a definite causal relationship between ankyloglossia and speech disorders. In fact, there is very little in the literature that addresses ankyloglossia and speech at all. This is probably because a causal relationship is not what is typically seen clinically. (Kummer 2005)

The impact that tongue tie has upon speech is therefore a contentious issue.   Some professionals may document that the restricted range of motion of the tongue is having an impact upon a child’s ability to make particular speech sounds. Generally, however, it is thought that speech is rarely affected. Inaccurate articulation of sounds may be more apparent when a child or adult with tongue tie speaks quickly (Caroline Bowen 2015).

The most likely sounds to be affected are below:

  • ‘t’,d ’n, l,s,z’ as these all require that the speaker raise the tongue tip to the top of the mouth.

One reason for limited reports of tongue tie impacting upon speech may therefore be due to the way in which the tongue learns to compensate for reduced movement. For example, with t,d,n, whilst many people will raise their tongue tip to make these sounds, they can also be made using the main body of the tongue. L,s,z may be made by pointing the tongue tip down rather than up.).

Treating tongue tie

Treatment will depend upon the severity of tongue tie and to what extent it is affecting feeding or speech. For many, tongue tie will be asymptomatic and no treatment will be required (NICE 2005)

If you are worried that tongue tie is causing your child to struggle with eating of speaking, contact your health visitor, GP or speech and language therapist. If treatment is warranted, then the short frenulum can be cut. This procedure is done following a full assessment and may be carried out under general anaesthetic.

4 Fun tongue facts! 1. The saying ‘the cat has got your tongue’ is thought to have originated from the English Navy. Apparently, they had a whip called the ‘cat-o-nine-tails’. A whipping with this tool is thought to have been so painful that one couldn’t speak for some time afterwards. Hence the phrase ‘Has the cat got your tongue’. 2. On average, we have around ten thousand taste buds. 3. In Tibet, sticking out your tongue is considered a greeting (Don’t tell your kids!) 4. Contrary to popular belief, our tongues do not have four different taste zones for sour, sweet, salty and bitter! We can in fact sense these tastes all over the tongue.

Written by Carolyn Fox, Children’s Speech and Language Therapist

Related articles:

  1. Free speech sounds course part 1
  2. Free speech sounds course part 2
  3. What can I do to help correct my child’s speech?  -some practical takeaways to help a speech error


12 YouTube Videos for Teaching Speech, Language and Communication Skills

12 YouTube Videos for Teaching Speech, Language and Communication Skills

YouTube – teaching through video in less than 5 minute ‘bites’!

Free training!

Video is the perfect medium to teach parents and education staff signs to use with children to help their communication development.  Many of the signs we use to help can be found on YouTube:

Makaton  Their YouTube channel has videos of their signs of the week to keep your skills fresh (see ‘signing’ blog post for more information about using signs to support language development)

Cued articulation is often used with children with speech sound difficulties.  If your child is using this in therapy sessions, you might like to look up the signs on YouTube to remind yourself how to make them.  Jane Passy explains about Cued Articulation here

Songs and Rhymes

Toddlers and pre-school children will get the most out of the videos when you watch and join in with them.  YouTube is a huge library of action songs and videos, so if your child comes home from nursery singing ‘dingle dangle scarecrow’ you can learn how to join in with them here.

Singing hands  sing and sign lots of popular nursery rhymes and songs if you need inspiration for a new song to share with your child visit them.

Our article ‘make time to rhyme and sing’ has tips on how you can make the most of rhyme time to boost your child’s communication skills.

Think back to the way you first learnt the alphabet, or the colours of the rainbow – does a song or a rhyme pop into your head?  Calvert (2009) found that songs improved adults and children’s memory of content presented in a song compared to when the information was spoken.  Videos that are engaging to children may make them more likely to want to hear the content again and again (helping them to learn it), and you can find a number of YouTube videos with songs or rhymes about anything your child may need to practice, such as…

Opposites :

Check out this video on opposites

And this one!

The same study also found that it is important to check your child’s understanding of information learnt through song, and talk about it together in different activities and situations, so if you learn about opposites using those songs, you could then practice sorting toy animals into big vs small animals, or talk about big and small when you are sorting out the washing.


Young children practicing a sound might benefit from these videos from Ring Card phonics (plus they give adults some handy examples of words beginning with target sounds they can then use in games):

Songs that have lots of your child’s target sound can also be good to listen to, for example if your child is learning the ‘f’ sound then this ‘fee fi fo fum’  song from Jack and the Beanstalk would be good listening practice! has more examples of songs you could look up on YouTube containing a whole range of different speech sounds.


Pixar, Disney, and a few of the other animation companies have produced ‘shorts’ which are beautifully animated, often wordless video stories.  These are great for working on language and social communication targets with school-aged children.  Two of my favourites are:

Mouse for Sale


These can be used in a whole range of ways:

  • Pause the story and guess what might happen next
  • Your child could provide a ‘voiceover’ to the story, or dialogue for the characters
  • The characters are full of personality, so provide a good opportunity to practice descriptive language when describing the characters
  • Talk about the emotions in the story
  • Suggest an alternative ending for the story
  • Summarise the ‘moral’ of the story

Social skills

YouTube has cartoons and stories designed to teach children desired social behaviours, either explicitly:

Keep your hands to yourself

Or through suggestion:

My no no no day’, teaching that some days you might feel tired, sad and grumpy, but the next day you might feel better again!

YouTube is a massive resources, and these examples just skim the surface.  Please share with us via social media and tag us @Iris_Speaks  with the hashtag #YTSLT your top YouTube videos for developing communication skills.  Remember, your child will get the most out of any videos when you join in watching with them, and talk about the videos together.

Please check all external content, including YouTube videos, before using these with your child.  Whilst these videos were approved at the time of writing this post, content on YouTube and links may change.  Inclusion in this blog does not imply endorsement of the creator or poster of the videos.  YouTube contains adds prior to videos which may not be suitable for your child to watch.

Written by Alys Mathers, Speech and Language Therapist

Access the UK’s best Speech and Language Therapists from anywhere in the world 7 days a week. Online and at home. Book an initial consultation.

Related articles:

How long should my child spend with a screen?

Top 5 language apps

5 common myths about online speech and language therapy